Published on Apr 19, Abstract Bluejacking is the sending of unsolicited messages over Bluetooth to Bluetooth-enabled devices such as mobile phones, PDAs or laptop computers, sending a vCard which typically contains a message in the name field i. Bluetooth has a very limited range; usually around 10 meters on mobile phones, but laptops can reach up to meters with powerful transmitters. Bluejacking allows phone users to send business cards anonymously using Bluetooth wireless technology. Bluejacking does not involve the removal or alteration of any data from the device. Bluejackers often look for the receiving phone to ping or the user to react.
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Aucune remarque pour cette diapositive Bluejacking 1. NIT Kurukshetra1. Bluetooth has a very limited range; usually around 10meters on mobile phones, but laptops can reach up to meters with powerful transmitters. Bluejacking allows phone users to send business cards anonymously using Bluetooth wirelesstechnology.
Bluejacking does not involve the removal or alteration of any data from thedevice. Bluejackers often look for the receiving phone to ping or the user to react. In order tocarry out a bluejacking, the sending and receiving devices must be within 10 meters of oneanother. Phone owners who receive bluejack messages should refuse to add the contacts totheir address book. Devices that are set in non-discoverable mode are not susceptible tobluejacking.
Mobile phones have been adopted as an everyday technology, and they are ubiquitous insocial situations as users carry them around as they move through different physical locationsthroughout the day. As a communicative device, the mobile phone has been gradually takenup in ways that move beyond merely providing a channel for mediated conversation. Onesuch appropriation is bluejacking, the practice of sending short, unsolicited messages viavCard functionality to other Bluetooth-enabled phones.
To choose the recipients of bluejacks,senders complete a scan using their mobile phones to search for the available Bluetooth-enabled devices in the immediate area. NIT KurukshetraWe conceptualize bluejacking as a violation of possessional territory. Inspired by Goffman,we propose that the mobile phone is a possessional territory as a result of the intimacy andcontinued contact between mobile phone users and their phones.
Since we characterize the mobile phoneas a possessional territory, we adapt the category of violation, defined as a temporaryincursion where gaining control is not necessarily the goal as a likely and appropriatecategory of infringement in this context.
Visitors to public spaces can engage in habitual behaviors at aspecific location, such as picking a favorite parking spot that one can return to on eachsuccessive visit, to gain a sense of familiarity to locations that are frequently re-visited. Thesephysical environments then hold enough significance to inspire defense among those whoinhabit them and defensive behaviors, which can range from defining a personal space withina conversation or while using a tabletop work-surface.
Typically, an inhabitant of a publicplace tends to personalize a location if he or she feels that the social conventions of a spaceallow one the license to mark a territory. Bluejackers, however, ignore the conflict between the control exerted by the bluejacker andthe lack of defensive measures that can be taken by the recipient when his or her possessionalterritory is violated.
To gain a further understanding of why bluejackers would engage in apractice that disrupts the social conventions of public space, we ask the following researchquestions What are the characteristics of the public spaces in which bluejacking occurs?
What are the alternative social conventions that might arise from the practice ofbluejacking? What implications does this appropriation have for the design of mobile social systems? Ajack told IT Web that he used his Ericsson cellphone ina bank to send a message to someone with a Nokia Becoming bored while standing in a bank queue, Ajack did a Bluetooth discovery to see ifthere was another Bluetooth device around.
He took out his andstarted looking at his phone. Ajack then posted the story on a mobile Web site and other people started trying it out. Bluejacking has become popular among young people wanting to play practical jokes. A year-old named Ellie from Surrey in the UK has started a dedicated bluejacking site calledbluejackq.
The site explains what bluejacking is and also has forums where people can sharetheir bluejacking experiences. NIT Kurukshetra2. So bluejacking is based onBluetooth technology which is explained bellow. Bluetooth technologyBluetooth Technology was developed to solve the simple problem of eliminating theconnector cable. The idea is to replace the cables that are needed to accompany portabledevices carried by many mobile travelers with a low-cost, secure, robust RF link.
OriginallyBluetooth marketed to small handheld devices such as cell phones and laptops. As theBluetooth standard emerged successfully into society, the world demanded more. It isreported on Lets Go Digital in an article written by Ilse Jurrien that three new Bluetoothproducts are qualified every day and 10 million Bluetooth units are shipped per week. Bluetooth is so efficient, effective, and secure that even the IEEE approved the What is Bluetooth?
There are three key features of Bluetooth; robustness, low power, andlow cost. The Bluetooth standard provides a uniform structure enabling a wide variety ofdevices to seamlessly, and wirelessly, connect and communication with each other.
Bluetooth devices connect and communicate via RF link through short-range piconets. Bluetooth devices have the ability to connect with up to seven devices per piconet.
Each ofthese devices can also be simultaneously connected to other piconets. The piconet itself isestablished dynamically and automatically as Bluetooth enables devices enter and leave therange in which its radio operates.
The major pro of Bluetooth is the ability to be full duplexand handle both data and voice transmission simultaneously. The differentiation of Bluetooth 4 5. NIT Kurukshetrafrom other wireless standards such as Wi-fi is that the Bluetooth standard gives both linklayer and application layer definitions which support data and voice applications.
Bluetooth comes in two core versions; Version 2. The primary differences being Bluetooth 2. Both are equippedwith extended Synchronous Connections eSCO , which improves voice quality of audiolinks by allowing retransmissions of corrupted packets. Bluetooth technology operates in the unlicensed industrial, scientific and medical ISM band at 2. Bluetooth is modulated using adaptive frequencyhopping AFH.
This modulation has the capability to reduce interference between wirelesstechnologies sharing the ISM band. It does this by having the ability to detect other devicesusing the ISM band and use only frequencies that are free. The signal itself hops betweenranges of 79 frequencies at 1 Megahertz intervals to minimize interference.
The devices themselves are categorized into range ability. There are three classes ofdevices each covering a select range. Class 1 devices are mostly used in industrial cases andhave a range of to meters. These devices take more power than the standard devicesyou and I are accustomed to in our daily routine and therefore are a bit more expensive. Class 2 devices are most commonly found in mobile devices and the most commonly used.
Items such as cell phones and printers are Class 2 devices and have a range of 10 to 30 feetand use only 2. Finally, Class 3 devices have the shortest range of upto 1 meter and include devices such as keyboards and a computer mouse. Class three devicestherefore require the least amount of power and are in general the lease expensive.
Each of these systemsuses Bluetooth, and each forms its own piconet to talk between the main unit and peripheral. The cordless telephone has one Bluetooth transmitter in the base and another in thehandset. The manufacturer has programmed each unit with an address that falls into a rangeof addresses it has established for a particular type of device.
When the base is first turned on,it sends radio signals asking for a response from any units with an address in a particularrange. Since the handset has an address in the range, it responds, and a tiny network isformed. The computer and entertainment systemgo through similar routines, establishing networks among addresses in ranges established bymanufacturers.
Once the networks are established, the systems begin talking amongthemselves. Each piconet hops randomly through the available frequencies, so all of thepiconets are completely separated from one another. Now the living room has three separate networks established, each one made up ofdevices that know the address of transmitters it should listen to and the address of receivers itshould talk to. NIT Kurukshetra The Bluetooth architecture is divided into two specifications: the core and the profilespecifications.
The core specification discusses how the technology works while the profilespecification focuses on how to build interoperating devices using the core technologies. The nominal link rangeis 10 centimeters to 10 meters, but can be extended to more than meters by increasing thetransmit power to mW. The Bluetooth Baseband The basic radio is a hybrid spread spectrum radio that operates in a frequency hoppingmanner in the ISM band. As stated earlier, the band is divided into 79 one Megahertzchannels that the radio randomly hops through while transmitting and receiving data.
Apiconet is formed when one Bluetooth radio connects to another Bluetooth radio. Both radiosthen hope together throughout the 79 channels. The Bluetooth radio system supports a largenumber of piconets by providing each piconet with its own set of random hoping patterns. Eachpacket can be composed of multiple slots 1, 3, or 5 of us. Below is a single slot frame. Figure 2:Multi-slot frames allow higher data rates because of the elimination of the turn-around timebetween packets and the reduction in header overhead.
The method which Bluetooth radiosconnect to each other in a piconet is fairly simple. Themaster radio can be connected up to seven slave radios at any given time. Any Bluetoothradio can become a master or a slave radio. At the time of formation the piconetconfiguration is determined. In order for the piconet to be established by a Bluetooth Radio, the radio must havetwo parameters available, that is, the hopping pattern of the radio it is to be connected to andthe phase within that pattern.
The master radio shares its Global ID with other radios. The other radios thatreceive the Global ID become slaves and provide all other radios with the correct hoppingpattern. IT is the master who provides the clock offset with the slaves in the piconet,providing the offset into the hopping pattern. Usually, radios not connected to the piconet are in stand-by mode. While in stand-bymode, radios are listen for other radios to find them, which is called Inquiring, and are 8 9. NIT Kurukshetralistening for a request to from a piconet, which is called Paging.
In the event a radio issuesan Inquire command, a listening radio will respond with an FHS packet that includes thedevices Global ID and clock offset to give the inquiring radio at list of available Bluetoothradios within the local range. A Bluetooth radio will page another radio with its Global ID to form a piconet. Theradio that was paged will respond with its Global ID and the master radio will pass the radiothat was paged and FHS packet.
Bluejacking is the sending of unsolicited messages over Bluetooth to Bluetooth-enabled devices such as mobile phones, PDAs or laptop computers, etc. Bluetooth has a very limited range; usually around 10 meters on mobile phones, but laptops can reach up to meters with powerful transmitters. Origin of Bluejacking- This bluejack phenomenon started after a Malaysian IT consultant named Ajack posted a comment on a mobile phone forum. Ajack told IT Web that he used his Ericsson cellphone in a bank to send a message to someone with a Nokia Ajack did a Bluetooth discovery to see if there was another Bluetooth device around.
What is bluejacking?
Learn how and when to remove this template message This Siemens M75 is bluejacking the Sony Ericsson Ki pictured below. The text at the bottom of the screen reads "Add to contacts? Bluejacking is the sending of unsolicited messages over Bluetooth to Bluetooth-enabled devices such as mobile phones , PDAs or laptop computers , sending a vCard which typically contains a message in the name field i. Bluetooth has a very limited range, usually around 10 metres Origins[ edit ] Bluejacking was reportedly first carried out between and by a Malaysian IT consultant who used his phone to advertise Ericsson to a single Nokia phone owner in a Malaysian bank. Another user on the forum claims earlier discovery,  reporting a near-identical story to that attributed to Ajack, except they describe bluejacking 44 Nokia phones instead of one, and the location is a garage, seemingly in Denmark , rather than a Malaysian Bank.