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Occurrence of Chlamydomonas 2. Plant Body of Chlamydomonas 3. Features 4. Reproduction 5. Life History. Occurrence of Chlamydomonas: The genus Chlamydomonas Gr. Chlamys, mantle; monas, single organism includes about species, found almost everywhere i. Commonly they are found in fresh water of lakes, ponds, tanks etc. But the snow covered mountain range of yellow stone national park USA becomes yellowish green due to the well- developed population of C. The cells are usually spherical, oval or oblong in shape but other forms like ellipsoidal, pyriform etc.

Most of the species are broader towards the posterior side and pointed towards the anterior side, which gradually ends in apical papilla. The cell wall is thin, smooth and firm. It is made up of cellulose. In some species C. The protoplast contains the following: a. Chloroplasts: It occupies the lower broader part. It is generally of cup-shaped and parietal Fig. However, the chloroplast is variable in shape, such as H-shaped in C.

Chloroplast has single pyrenoid with a starch sheath. The number is also variable and it may be two C. Sometimes they may be numerous and distributed irregularly inside the chloroplast C. Eye-Spot: Towards the anterior end of the chloroplast at one side an circular to oval, photoreceptive organ, the stigma or eye spot is present.

The spot consists of a curved pigmented plate,, the pigmentosa and a biconvex lens. Flagella: Two whiplash-types of flagella are present towards the anterior region of the cell. They are equal in length. The flagella may be very small, same size of the cell or bigger than the cell in most species.

The flagella come out through very fine canals, on the outer wall. In some species like C. Both are connected by a fibre, called paradesmose. One of the blepharoplast is connected to the centrosome of the nucleus by a thread, the rhizoplast. Many fine fibrils connect the centrosome with the nucleolus. The E. Possibly they regulate the water content of the cell, by discharging more water at times. Structure as observed under E.

The cell wall is multilayered 7 layered and it consists of proteins. Cellulose is absent. Cell membrane like normal eukaryotic cell is lipoprotein in nature. The chloroplast is cup-shaped C. It bears a number of band-shaped photosynthetic lamellae, the thylakoids; are lipoprotein in nature and remain dispersed in the granular matrix, the stroma. The grana-like bodies are formed by the aggregation of about thylakoids. The cytoplasm contain nucleus, mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, E.

R, ribosomes etc. The nucleus always lies in the cytoplasm, present in the cavity of chloroplast. The eye-spot consist of parallel rows of lipid droplets i. It remains embedded at one side of the chloroplast. Important Features of Chlamydomonas: 1.

Plant body is unicellular, pear-shaped and biflagellate. Presence of palmella-stage. Asexual reproduction takes place through biflagellate zoospore formation. Sexual reproduction through iso-, aniso-, and oogamy. But some others also reproduce by aplanospores, hypnospores, palmella stage and rarely by synzoospores.

Zoospores: During night with favourable environmental conditions zoospores are formed Fig. Each unit of protoplast secretes a wall around and develops contractile vacuoles. They are released by rupturing or gelatinisation of the mother wall. At the time of liberations they develop their flagella. These flagellated daughter units are called zoospores.

After liberation they behave as new individuals and capable of developing new crop of zoospores after 24 hours. Aplanospores: The aplanospores are formed during unfavourable conditions. Following the same procedure like zoospore-formation, they develop daughter protoplasts. Each one secretes, thin wall around, itself. These thin walled non-motile spores are called aplanospores.

Hypnospores: The hypnospores are formed during severe drought. The hypnospores are developed like aplanospores, but the wall becomes much thicker than aplanospores. During favourable condition they germinate like aplanospores i. Palmella Stage: During zoospore formation, suddenly if the environmental condition becomes unfavourable, the parent wall gets gelatinised.

The entire structure becomes enlarged much more. This stage looks like another green alga Palmella of Tetrasporales and called this stage as Palmella stage Fig. During favourable conditions, the unit bodies develop into individual zoospore. Palmella stage is very common in C. Synzoospore: The multinucleate and multi- flagellate zoospores are called synzoo- spores. They are reported to be formed in artificial culture. The mother nucleus divides into 4 nuclei, those develop a pair of flagella and finally to synzoospores.

Sexual Reproduction: Sexual reproduction takes place during desiccation or deficiency of nitrogenous compound in the growing medium. It takes place very commonly through isogamy and less frequently through anisogamy and oogamy. In this type sexual union takes place between the morphologically identical gametes Fig. In some species the vegetative cell directly develops into gametes hologamy or generally it divides into 8 to 64 gametes. The uniting gametes may develop from the same plant e.

In most of the species the gametes are unicellular, uninucleate, very small and biflage- llate structures Fig. The wall at the point of contact dissolves resulting in the formation of diploid quadriflagellate zygote through plasmogamy followed by karyogamy Fig. Anisogamy: It is the union between two gametes male and female of different sizes Fig. The larger one is called macrogamete female produced only 2 or 4 in the female gametangium.

The smaller one is called microgamete male produced 8 or 16 in the male gametangium. The micro- gametes are more active than macrogametes. The microgamete comes very close to the macrogamete. Both the gametes undergo fusion and form zygote Fig. This type of sexual union is found in C. The microgamete male is biflagellate and smaller in size than the macrogamete female which is non-motile and larger. The male cell divides repeatedly and forms 16 units, each of which is converted into male gamete.

On the other hand, the female cell leaves the flagella and directly functions as female gamete. The active male gamete comes very close to non-motile female gamete and attaches itself at the anterior end. This type of union is found in C. Zygote: Initially the quadriflagellate zygote remains motile for several hours C.

After leaving flagella it settles down on the substratum and takes rest. Primary wall is formed by the zygote, followed by thick ornamented secondary wall Fig. With maturity the zygote accumulates large amount of starch and oil. Germination of Zygote: During germination Fig. The inner wall dissolves and by breaking the outer wall the haploid cells are liberated. During liberation they develop flagella and behave like new individuals.

Indian Species: Chlamydomonas eugametos, C.


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Chlamydomonas: Occurrence, Features and Life History

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