ASTM E140 PDF

Full Description 1. These hardness conversion relationships are intended to apply particularly to the following: nickel-aluminum-silicon specimens finished to commercial mill standards for hardness testing, covering the entire range of these alloys from their annealed to their heavily cold-worked or age-hardened conditions, including their intermediate conditions. Most Rockwell hardness numbers are presented to the nearest 0. The equations given in Annex A1 - Annex A9 were developed from the data in Tables 1 to 9, respectively. The equations given in Annex A10 were developed at the time the Leeb hardness test was invented see Appendix X2. The data in Table 10 was calculated from the Annex A10 equations.

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Methods for Hardness Determinations 3. NOTE 1The comparative hardness test done to generate the conversion tables in this standard were performed in past years using ASTM test methods in effect at the time of testing. In some cases, the standards have changed in ways that could affect the final results. For example, currently both the Rockwell and Brinell hardness standards Test MethodE10 and E18, respectively allow or require the use of tungsten carbide ball indenters; however, all of the ball scale Rockwell hardness tests HRB, HR30T, etc.

The use of tungsten carbide balls will produce slightly different hardness results than steel balls. Therefore, the user is cautioned to consider these differences and to keep in mind the approximate nature of these conversions when applying them 2 For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.

The last approved version of this historical standard is referenced on www. Registered trademark of the Shore Instrument and Manufacturing Co. Apparatus and Reference Standards 4. Principle of Method of Conversion 5. Indentation hardness is not a single fundamental property but a combination of properties, and the contribution of each to the hardness number varies with the type of test.

The modulus of elasticity has been shown to influence conversions at high hardness levels; and at low hardness levels conversions between hardness scales measuring depth and those measuring diameter are likewise influenced by differences in the modulus of elasticity. Therefore separate conversion tables are necessary for different materials. NOTE 2Hardness conversion values for other metals based on comparative test on similar materials having similar mechanical properties will be added to this standard as the need arises.

Significance and Use 6. This is because conversions can be affected by several factors, including the material alloy, grain structure, heat treatment, etc.

Because of the wide range of variation among different materials, it is not possible to state confidence limits for the errors in using a conversion chart. Even in the case of a table established for a single material, such as the table for cartridge brass, some error is involved depending on composition and methods of processing. It is recommended that hardness conversions be applied primarily to values such as specification limits, which are established by agreement or mandate, and that the conversion of test data be avoided whenever possible see Note 1.

Reporting of Hardness Numbers 7. This is still an acceptable practice as in the following:.

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This is because conversions can be affected by several factors, including the material alloy, grain structure, heat treatment, etc. Because of the wide range of variation among different materials, it is not possible to state confidence limits for the errors in using a conversion chart. Even in the case of a table established for a single material, such as the table for cartridge brass, some error is involved depending on composition and methods of processing. It is recommended that hardness conversions be applied primarily to values such as specification limits, which are established by agreement or mandate, and that the conversion of test data be avoided whenever possible see Note 1.

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Hardness Conversion Calculator ASTM E140 Brinell Vickers Rockwell Knoop Scleroscope

You are on page 1of 25 Search inside document Standard Hardness Conversion Tables for Metals Relationship Among Brinell Hardness, Vickers Hardness, Rockwell Hardness, Superficial Hardness, Knoop Hardness, Scleroscope Hardness, and Leeb Hardness1 This standard is issued under the fixed designation E; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript epsilon indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval. This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the U. Department of Defense.

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