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History[ edit ] The contemporary Macedonian historical narrative is rooted in communist groups active during the interwar period , especially in the s, when the Comintern issued a special resolution in their support. The Macedonian awakening in the 19th century took place as part of the Bulgarian National Revival , but managed to evolve separately in the early 20th century.
Its primary goal was to create a separate Macedonian national consciousness, with an "anti-Bulgarian" or "de-Bulgarizing" trend, and to sever any ties with Bulgaria. Originally exhibited in the local museum, it was locked away when Bulgarian scientists became aware of its content, confirming the Cometopuli considered their state Bulgarian.
The historiographic narrative in the first two decades afterwards was expanded to the early 19th century, during which, as it was believed then, was the beginning of the history of the Macedonian people. However, the personalities from the area included into the new narrative also played a significant role in the Bulgarian National Revival. Numerous prominent activists with pro-Bulgarian sentiments from the 19th and the early 20th centuries were described as ethnic Macedonians.
Due to the fact that in many documents of that period the local Slavic population is not referred to as "Macedonian" but as "Bulgarian", Macedonian historians argue that it was Macedonian, regardless of what is written in the records. They have also claimed that "Bulgarian" at that time was a term, not related to any ethnicity, but was used as a synonym for "Slavic", "Christian" or "peasant".
As a result, in the first academic "History of the Macedonian nation" was published, where many historical figures from the area who had lived in the last millennium as Samuel of Bulgaria , were described as people with a "Macedonian Slavic identity". When the historians from the Skopje University published in their collection of documents on the struggle of the Macedonian people, they included into the excerpts of the medieval chronicles a footnote for every use of the term Bulgarian.
For that reason most modern Macedonian historians reject its authenticity. Macedonian historiography did not revise much of the Yugoslav past, because almost all of its historical myths were constructed during the communist era.
The reluctance for a thorough reevaluation of Yugoslav communist historiography was mainly caused by the fact that the very Macedonian nation, state and language were a result of Yugoslav communist policies, where this historiography had played a crucial role. For the mainstream local establishment, an attitude against Communist Yugoslavia is seen as anti- Macedonism.
It has sought a new horizon behind the mythological symbolism of ancient Macedon. For that purpose the borders of the ancient state were extended towards the north, much further than its actual historical extent.
This new historical trend, called antiquization , made the Macedonian nationality a thousand years older. In this view Ancient Macedonians were not Ancient Greek people and a separate existence of Ancient Macedonians in the Early Middle Ages is maintained, years after the fall of their kingdom, as well as their admixture in the Byzantine Empire with the arriving early Slavic settlers in the late 6th century.
The Rosetta Stone , dated BC. During the s the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts promoted the view that the " Demotic Egyptian " script on it was written in a Slavic language close to modern Macedonian and that this was the language of the Ancient Macedonians.
The inscription reads: This holy church was erected with the contribution of the Bulgarians in Bitola on October 13, The part of the inscription that reads " Bulgarians " has been erased. Bulgarian invasion in Vardar Banovina , April Bulgarians were greeted as liberators. The issuance of the encyclopedia caused international and internal protest because of its content and its authors have been subjected to severe criticism. Even some Macedonian academics criticised the book as hastily prepared and politically motivated.
Soon the scandalous encyclopedia was withdrawn from the bookstores. Macedonian Canadian historian Andrew Rossos has published in the first professional English language overview of the history of Macedonia, however Stefan Troebst suggests that his narrative is enough affected by the views in the R. Macedonia and thus is representing the latest developments in the Macedonian historiography as viewed in Skopje.
Alternative views[ edit ] Memorial plaque of participiants in the Ilinden uprising in Malko Tarnovo. In the list are also names of revolutionaries born in Ottoman Macedonia. This part of the uprising, because it occurred on the territory of present-day Eastern Bulgaria , is denied by the historians in North Macedonia.
He also found several Bulgar settlements on the territory of the modern republic and argued the Slavs in Macedonia adopted the ethnonym Bulgarians in the 9th century. Todorovski has argued that all Macedonian revolutionaries from the early 20th century and beyond identified themselves as Bulgarians. Milosavlevski challenged the myth of the significance of the communist partisan resistance movement against the Bulgarian "fascistic occupiers" during the Second World War.
Their studies became the only exception to the new Macedonian historiography, with most historians staying loyal to the political elite, writing publications appropriating the Hellenistic part of the Macedonian past, the medieval Bulgarian Empire and the Bulgarian national revival from the Ottoman period. It demonstrates feebleness of archaeology and historiography, as well as some kind of ethnic marginalization. Such views are spread among well educated citizens that search for the scientific resolution of the nation-building process.
Despite significant parts of the leading establishment strongly opposing the articulation of such views, some prominent members of the elite disclose their rational views. Foreign historiographic studies[ edit ] The mainstream European historiography maintains that the idea of separate Macedonian nation was developed mainly during the Second World War and was adopted en masse immediately after it.
Since the creation of the Yugoslav Macedonia it was realized immediately. Borza , the Macedonians, who are a recently emergent people and have had no history, are in search of their past. This search is an attempt to help legitimize their unsure present, surviving in the disorder of Balkan politics.
Yasamee, the Macedonians are a striking instance of the mutability of national identity. Per Michael R. Palairet in the three-way dispute about Macedonia, the Bulgarian view is closer to the objective reality of history than either the Greek or Macedonian, but the Macedonian historiographical version violates common sense and the historical record much more than either the Greek or Bulgarian ones. On its ground a joint commission on historical and educational issues was formed in This intergovernmental commission is a forum where controversial historical issues will be raised and discussed, to resolve the problematic readings of history.
In June , Greece and Macedonia also signed an agreement to end their long disputes , which resulted in Macedonia being renamed the Republic of North Macedonia in February It also provides for the creation of a commission similar to that of the treaty signed with Bulgaria. However, with nationalism in the three countries rising, there are still Greek and Bulgarian scholars who claim a Macedonian nation did not exist until the middle of the 20th century and therefore could not exist in the present.
It states that the rewriting of the history of part of the Bulgarian people after was one of the pillars of the bulgarophobic agenda of then Yugoslav communism. Dragi Karev , has appealed that it is necessary to acknowledge, there have been made a forgeries from the Macedonian side.
Thus, instead of "Bulgarian" as in the original artifacts, in the Macedonian textbooks was written "Macedonian". According to him, for many years the historiography in North Macedonia has been a function of the process of nation-building.
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