Zypressen Blattlaus German , cypress aphid English Synonym Similar species Summary Cinara cupressi is a brownish soft-bodied insect classified as an aphid. The overall effect on the tree ranges from partial damage to eventual death of the entire tree. This aphid has seriously damaged commercial and ornamental plantings of trees around the globe. They are about 2. Adults are winged or wingless.
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Zypressen Blattlaus German , cypress aphid English Synonym Similar species Summary Cinara cupressi is a brownish soft-bodied insect classified as an aphid. The overall effect on the tree ranges from partial damage to eventual death of the entire tree. This aphid has seriously damaged commercial and ornamental plantings of trees around the globe.
They are about 2. Adults are winged or wingless. They often occur with several young nymph , which they produce rapidly. They are commonly seen in colonies along the twigs of infested trees. Watson et al. The remainder of the complex, Cinara cupressi sensu lato , apparently consists of three morphologically similar species C.
They feed by piercing the bark and sucking the sap. The saliva they produce is phytotoxic and leads to necrosis in the phloem conducting tissue of the sap which subsequently results in the twig withering.
Ants feed on a sugary substance produced by Cinara cupressi and contribute to their diffusion by transferring them from one part of the tree to another, thus creating new areas of infestation. At the beginning of the summer, when the temperature rises and the infestation is at its height, the sap cannot get to its destination the apex of the leaves because of the necrosis of its conducting tissues.
As the weather gets hotter the aphids move down to the earth seeking protection from the summer heat. This is why at this point any form of treatment is useless, because when the first withered areas become visible the vast majority of the aphids are no longer on the foliage. During summer months it reproduces parthenogenetically.
The species give birth to live young. There are two forms of adults: a winged and a wingless form. As cool weather, both males and females are found and eggs are produced instead of live nymphs. Eggs are deposited in rough areas on twigs and foliage, where rthey overwinter. General Impacts C. The overall effect on the tree ranges from partial damage to eventual death of the entire tree, depending on the severity and duration of the C. The Royal Horticultural Society lists the symptoms of C.
On clipped hedges the dieback can be quite pronounced, with the lower parts often more severely affected than the top. A black powdery coating of sooty mould often develops on the stems and foliage.
Kenya, has the largest area of industrial forest plantations of Cupressus lusitanica planted on about 86, ha out of this, about 5, ha have been infested by the aphid to variable damage levels ranging from slight to severe Mwangi, The decline in population density results in some recovery of damaged trees.
The author states that for the treatments to succeed, the first aphid colonies that settle on the tree after hibernation this takes place by the month of March in Italy should be primarily targeted. Later treatments are always less successful and sometimes useless if carried out after the appearance of the withered areas.
The treatment depends on the presence of the aphid which can be detected by shaking the branches so that it falls onto a white cloth placed underneath the tree. The success of the treatment also depends on spraying all the foliage, above all the internal branches.
The author suggests that it is best to wait before felling as even badly damaged trees have often known to recover through the growth of adventitious buds Panconesi, Undated. They observe that it is often difficult to spray large hedges thoroughly and damage will occur when the aphid is abundant. Though slow damaged hedges are known to recover. Mwangi reports on testing the using of high-volume back-mounted warm fog generators. The fog, which is a carrier of active ingredients, rises to the top of the crown and drifts to cover all portions of the tree.
Motorised sprayers need a lot of water and spray droplets cannot reach the tops of tall trees. Another example is Aphidus sp, a parasitoid, that has been found attacking C.
Kamunya et al. The authors found that some C. Orondo and Day quanitifed damage to C. Damage for each of the trees was scored on the five point scale on six occasions.
The authors found that damage decreased over the period of the study. These observations should be repeated in younger trees and in different areas.
Afide del Cipresso (Cinara cupressi). Riconoscimento e lotta.
None Impact Top of page Since the s, stands of cypresses and junipers in many countries have been seriously damaged by C. Sporadic outbreaks have been reported from western and southern Europe, e. The population since described as Cinara cupressivora has been recorded causing damage in Colombia and Mauritius Watson et al. From its initial introduction point in Malawi, Africa, it spread through southern and eastern Africa, where it caused extensive damage in eight countries Ciesla, ; Murphy et al. The main species of cypress grown commercially in Kenya and many other countries in eastern Africa, is Cupressus lusitanica, which is favoured for its rapid growth rate and excellent form.
Taxonomy[ edit ] Several species of aphid have been described on cypresses and related trees in various parts of the world. The species Lachnus juniperinus was described from Poland on Juniperus communis and Thuja occidentalis , but all these species have since been synonymised with C. The insect in Europe and the Middle East has been described as C. These species are not separable using morphological characters alone, and a determination as to whether they are valid species awaits molecular evidence. It is orangish to yellowish-brown with black markings, lightly dusted on the dorsal surface with pale grey wax.