This is called outer orientation of the dual time intervals. Physics, compared to other natural sciences, has the great privilege of considering the quantitative attributes of physical systems and from these originate the physical quantitieswhich can be scalarsvectorstensorsetc. The third category, that of energy variablesis created by multiplying a configuration variable by a source variable. This gives what I regard as a very important distinction among vector quantities.

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Jurr Get to Know Us. This is called outer orientation of the dual time instant. The third part further analyses the general structure of the classification diagram for variables and equations of physical theories. Of the factors which compose it [energy], one is referred to unit of length, and the other to unit of area. English Choose a language for shopping. The Mathematical Structure of Classical and Relativistic Physics : Enzo Tonti : Considering now the middle instants of each time interval we have a second cell complex in time.

Dual complex, outer orientation: The mathematical treatment of physics also customarily considers the limit of this ratio to obtain a pointwise density, i. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. The Scientific Papers of J. Annali di Matematica pura ed applicata 95 1, The term time-global variables is used to indicate variables that are not rates of other variables. Available for download now.

Pressure is the gonti of the normal force on an element of plane surface to the surface area, therefore the normal force is the global variable and the pressure is its surface density. Views Read Edit View history. Home Contact Us Help Free delivery worldwide. This gives what I regard as a very important distinction among vector quantities. The fundamental problem tpnti a field is finding the configuration of the field at every time instant, given the spatial distribution and the intensity of its sources which is to say: A major contributor to this article appears to have a close connection with its subject.

Learn how and when to remove these template messages. Since in each field of physics the global variables are associated with a space and a time element, the association of the corresponding densities and the rates with the space and time element of the otnti global variable is spontaneous. Alexa Actionable Analytics for the Web. Those that link configuration variables to source variablesâ€”contained in the horizontal linksâ€”are material or constitutive equations, and belong to the category of phenomenological equations.

Title Cited by Year A direct discrete formulation toonti field laws: The physical variables, both global variables and densities, in turn, can be divided into three classes: The theories involved are: Generally, field variables are preferred to global variables, to the extent that we express the global variables as integrals of the respective field variables, and call them integral variables. The left column includes those physical variables associated with the primal cell complex, whose elements are endowed with inner orientation: Comparative study of physical theories has revealed the presence of a common topological and geometric structure.

Particle Modeling Donald Greenspan. A General Classification Tont. Progress in electromagnetics research toti, This article relies largely or entirely on a single source. Verified email at units.

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Historical note[ edit ] The starting point of this classification stems from a remark by Maxwell. Speaking about analogies in different physical theories, Maxwell wrote in [2] Of the factors which compose it [energy], one is referred to unit of length, and the other to unit of area. This gives what I regard as a very important distinction among vector quantities. This remark leads us to a distinction between vectors referred to lines and vectors referred to surfaces. This is not customarily considered in vector calculus or in physics. In electromagnetism, hence, vectors E and H are associated with lines, and vectors D and B are associated with surfaces. This distinction leads to a classification of physical variables based on their association with space elements.

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