In doing so, it is important to understand how to organize, test, and apply knowledge to nursing. Barbara Carper identified four fundamental patterns of knowing in nursing which are necessary for the teaching and learning of nursing. A different method of analysis is required to find evidence, understand each pattern and develop knowledge about each pattern. Empirical knowing or knowledge is simply the science of nursing Hunter, Since then, there has been an increasing importance placed on the development of a body of empirical knowledge on nursing. With empirical knowing, science of nursing can be categorized into general law and theories Carper,
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Fundamental Patterns of Knowing as depicted in Chinn, P. Knowledge Development in Nursing: Theory and Process 10th ed. St Louis: Elsevier. Used by permission. Brief Summary of the work In this foundational article, Dr. Carper describes the results of her philosophic analysis of the conceptual and syntactical structure of nursing knowledge. Her analysis was based on early nursing texts, and resulted in the identification of four patterns: empirics, ethics, esthetics and personal knowing.
But it represents a personal conviction that there is a need to examine the kinds of knowing that provide the discipline with its particular perspectives and significance. Understanding four fundamental patterns of knowing makes possible an increased awareness of the complexity and diversity of nursing. Her work provided a vision of nursing to break free from the constraints of empirics alone, and has advanced debate and discussion of the unique nature of nursing as a discipline and as a practice.
Primary Source Carper, B. Fundamental patterns of knowing in nursing. Advances in nursing science, 1, 13— See these sources as examples: Archibald, M. The holism of aesthetic knowing in nursing. Nursing philosophy: an international journal for healthcare professionals, 13, — Averill, J. Patterns of knowing as a foundation for action-sensitive pedagogy.
Qualitative health research, 17, — Postcolonial theory, nursing knowledge, and the development of emancipatory knowing. Advances in nursing science, 37 3 , — The winding road from research to practice through theory. Nursing Research, 60, Boykin, A. Aesthetic knowing grounded in an explicit conception of nursing. Nursing science quarterly, 7 4 , — The ethics of caring.
Advances in nursing science, 1, 11— Chinn, P. Cloutier, J. International journal of nursing education scholarship, 4, 1— Eisenhauer, E.
Advances in nursing science, 38 2 , 73— Fawcett, J. Commentary: Finding patterns of knowing in the work of Florence Nightingale. Nursing outlook, 54, — Evaluating research for evidence-based nursing practice. Philadelphia, PA: F. Garrett, B. Ways of knowing: realism, non-realism, nominalism and a typology revisited with a counter perspective for nursing science.
Nursing inquiry, 22 2 , 95— A philosophical model of the nature of nursing. Nursing Research, 67, Henry, D. Rediscovering the art of nursing to enhance nursing practice. Nursing Science Quarterly, 31, Jacobs, B. Advances in nursing science, 36 4 , — Health Science Journal, 5, — Paley, J. Journal of advanced nursing, 60, — PIckler, R. Editorial: Theory use and usefulness in scientific advancement.
Silva, M. Advances in nursing science, 18, 1— Terry, L. Advances in nursing science, 40 1 , 85— Thorne, S. Advances in nursing science, 37 1 , 5— Towards an aesthetics of nursing. Journal of advanced nursing, 32, — White, J. Patterns of knowing: Review, critique, and update. Advances in nursing science, 17, 73— Author Barbara A. Carper Dr. She held faculty positions in Texas, Maine and North Carolina until her retirement in Ethical theories Nursing ethics, developed by means of values clarification and dialogue about beliefs and values; the moral component of nursing.
Personal knowing theories Nursing interpersonal relations, developed by means of thinking and reflecting about how the individual nurse expresses his or her authenticity in relationships with patients; the self and other in nursing. Sociopolitical or emancipatory theories Nursing politics and policies, developed by means of paying attention to all relevant voices in healthcare situations so to describe the social, cultural, and political contexts of nurse-patient interactions and of all healthcare settings; the praxis of nursing.
Carper's fundamental ways of knowing
Application instructions for international students. How do I apply? According to Chapman, nursing demands a high awareness of empathetic processes, while Agleton finds it inappropriate for professional practice. Ethics, identified by Carper as the pattegns component of nursing, constitutes a fundamental pattern of knowing. The pattern of personal knowing in nurse clinical decision making. Concepts Basic to Chicago Press, An authentic personal 14 from complex organic wholes.
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Fundamental Patterns of Knowing as depicted in Chinn, P. Knowledge Development in Nursing: Theory and Process 10th ed. St Louis: Elsevier. Used by permission. Brief Summary of the work In this foundational article, Dr.
Carper's Four Ways of Knowing and Scholarliness in Nursing
Nursing Knowledge: The Ways of Knowing
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